3. At a low temperature the substrate and enzyme have less kinetic energy so their collisions are weak and generally insufficient to overcome the activation energy. The rate will then begin to decrease when the temperature is too high. If at times they respire without oxygen- i.e. As a result the temporary bonds that occur between the substrate and the enzyme cannot form. From the diagram above you can see the steps in between the break down of glucose and the formation of pyruvate. After several minutes I will close both the three-way tap and the screw-clip and make a note of the position of the manometer fluid. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. This is why think raising the temperature will increase the rate of respiration. I will then be able to calculate the volume of oxygen produced per minute per gram. These insects are primarily used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI), but can also be involved in the analysis of toxic substances, determining manner of death, and in indicating relocation of a corpse in homicide cases. If it fluctuates then I can account for any changes in rate of respiration. Using a Bunsen burner to maintain a temperature is very difficult and also inaccurate. By repeating the experiment these factors can be accounted for. The third stage of the respiration process is known as the Krebs cycle, which is a closed pathway of enzyme-controlled reactions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The spiracles have a number of slits that can be used to determine what instar , or larval stage, the larvae is in; for example, one slit means first instar, two slits means second instar, and three slits means third instar. If we now however raise the temperature the graph will look like the one shown below. The diagrams below show the process of oxidative phosphorylation and also how ATP synthase works. •Maggots (fly larvae) are remarkable eating machines. I will then begin the stopwatch and record how far the fluid has travelled after 1-minute time intervals. – Concentration of Enzymes/Substrates- Respiration is an enzyme-dependant process and therefore the concentration of enzymes and substrates must be kept constant. In my experiments I am relying on the fact that the maggots will consume air- therefore respiring aerobically, and this will cause the bubble to be pushed towards the maggots. There are several measurements I must take when carrying out the experiment. Fish is a very expensive food stock as it is in high demand by the fish meal industry, but they know that it really does produce the best maggots. If soda lime was not present, the manometer fluid in the manometer would not move, as the volume of gas is not changing. It is used for maggot therapy in humans, as the larvae will effectively feed on necrotic tissue and thus aid in wound debridement. I am using a thermometer to ensure that the temperature of the water bath remains constant throughout. From the preliminary results you can see that as the temperature is raised from room temperature to 35 degrees Celsius, the cumulative volume of oxygen produced over a period of 6 minutes increases- i.e. As maggots are cold blooded, have a simple structure and can not effectively control their body temperature, they will respire according to the environment they are in. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Which of these is NOT considered a common family of myiasis producing flies? I will then attach a 3-way tap to one of the delivery tubes on the bung and to this tap I will attach a syringe. – Life Cycle- Just like any other living organism the maggots are part of a life cycle. The R groups determine the shape of the active site in an enzyme. 2 hydrogen atoms are then removed from this molecule by 2 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) molecules to form 2 molecules of pyruvate. Chances are if you found maggots chowing down on a wound, you'd make a beeline to the closest hospital. Found a maggot on my bed after putting snacks away now I’m paranoid but didn’t find no fly or anymore maggots at the moment i don’t know where it could have came from. However the problem arises when this set up is used when the invertebrates are put into a water bath. The substrate moves into the active site of the enzyme. E.g. Finally the enzyme and products move away, and the enzyme can then be used again. The presence of three spiracular slits indicates that this is a third instar larva (second instar larvae each have 2 slits). Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. There are various set-ups for measuring the oxygen uptake of any organism. The size of this kinetic energy needed varies between reactions due to different bond enthalpies. As stated earlier enzymes are complex 3-dimensional globular proteins. This is explained in further detail later on. This is then used to synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 1Diagram showing how an enzyme speeds up the breakdown of a substrate. As nicely explained by Idzi, Jeff, Florida Fan and Kosta, the appearance of the spiracular plate (straight slits, complete peritreme), and lack of an accessory oral sclerite points to this being Lucilia rather than Calliphora sp. Maggots are one of the most popular bait used by Ice Fishermen in the United States. The maggots used in these procedures have been sterilized and don't have the risks involved with wild maggots. The enzyme is in the tertiary structure of a protein. Alternatively, to reduce the percentage error, I must use a piece of apparatus with a smaller error margin. They munch on rotting flesh, leaving healthy tissue practically unscathed. Air is then drawn in from the surroundings and the bubble moves towards the invertebrates in the boiling tube. I will vary the temperature from 10 degrees Celsius to 60 degrees Celsius in 10*c intervals. The enzyme lowers the activation energy further, so that a larger number of molecules have the required energy and can cause a reaction. The natural antibiotic secreted by blow fly maggots is called: Allatoin 14. The spiracles of Muscina have spiracular slits that are not straight and exhibit some form of curvature. After doing this I will place another gauze on top of the maggots to prevent them climbing up the tube. 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