It is one of the best draught breeds of southern India. Outside organic production system too, their manure decrease the need for artificial fertilizer and they thereby mitigate climate change. Cows usually have well- developed udders. In this name “Amrit” means milk and “Mahal” means house. Due to the mechanization, the use of bullocks as draft power has reduced resulting into steep decline in the population of the most famous dual-purpose breed of North India, Haryana, Rathi and Nagori breed also do not seem to have a bright prospect. Gaolao animals are white or light gray. The tail is long and whip-like, hooves are black and medium-sized, hair is short and glossy, skin is loose and pliable, hipbones are prominent, the body is well proportioned, the udder in cows is well developed and teat tips are round. Grains are used for human consumption while the stover is fed to cattle. Malvi is primarily a draught breed found in a large area comprising Indore, Dewas, Ujjain, Shajapur, Mandsaur, Ratlam, and Rajgarh districts of Madhya Pradesh, and Jhalawar district of Rajasthan. So much so Lord KRISHNA himself served and worshiped cow and identified it as 'caretaker' thus the status of 'MOTHER'. The maximum height of a Vechur cow is 91 cms. The udder is well developed and well set. A literature review of these and other Indian breeds in India, Brazil, Mexico and the U. S., would indicate production characteristics similar to the American Brahman and other Bos indicus breeds with lower birth weights in purebreds than Bos taurus breeds. The Amrit Mahal (Kannada:ಅಮೃತ ಮಹಲ್) is a breed of cattle that originated from the erstwhile state of Mysore in Karnataka, India.They originated from the Hallikar and closely related breeds, Hagalavadi and Chithradurg.Originally developed for use in war for transporting equipage, the bullocks are notable for their great endurance and speed. Cows usually have a well-developed udder. The cows give about 2 to 3 liters of rich creamy and extremely healthy and nutritious milk. These breeds are known by many names, such … Ears are sharply pointed and do not droop. In some cases, they're totally black or brown. Ears are somewhat long, broad and slightly pendulous. The water buffalo can mainly be classified as River (Chromosome no., 2n=50) and swamp type (Chromosome no., 2n=48). Kangayam cattle are maintained under the semi-intensive system of management. The Tharu tribe is mainly involved in rearing pure Ponwar animals. In spite of all the heterogeneity, a medium type breed adapted to the desert conditions has been developed. This breed is almost on the verge of extinction. In some cases head, face and shoulder are slightly grayish. Dairy type cattle breeds are Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir, Kankrej and Rathi. The coat colour of Gir animals varies from shades of red and white to almost black and white or entire red. The forehead is slightly prominent and has a deep furrow between the roots of horns. The sheath is small. Nagpur, Wardha and Berar districts of Madhya Pradesh. Eyes are prominent and bright with black eyelashes. Hooves are small and black. Horns emerge near each other from the top of the poll and are carried backward, each in a straight line for nearly half their length and then with a gentle and graceful sweep bend forward and slightly inward toward the tips which are black and sharp. Horns are flat, of medium length, sickle shaped and are directed downward and backward, and then turn upward at the tip to form a hook. A typical Khillar animal is compact and tight skinned, with clean cut features. Usefulness of various indigenous breeds has not been fully explored. The horns are small to medium and curve inward with pointed tips. Animals are grazed in the grasslands preserved by the forest department. Milk of European breeds is addictive, triggers schizophrenia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These cows have been the most crucial backbone of India’s rural economy. Hump is of small size in females and medium but inclined to be dropping in males. Bulls are darker than cows. Comparatively, in India the Ongole cattle breed population is now estimated at 700 to 750 cattle and is presently in endangered status. It is known for its draught qualities and ability to thrive on poor fodder resources. To watch a herd of Amrit Mahal cows is a stirring sight. Bargur is a draught breed found around Bargur hills in Bhavani taluk of Erode district of TamilNadu and is bred extensively by Lingaiys and Lambadis of that area. Ongole ... • A cow should allow anybody to milk, and should be doile it is better to purchase the animals during the months of October and November. Lactation milk yield averaged 462.5±12.1 kg. Mewati breed of cattle is found in the tract known as Mewat, comprising Alwar and Bharatpur districts of Rajasthan. The mechanization and commercialization of agriculture has influenced the utility of these breeds as draft animals. Sahiwal and Gir. These animals contribute significantly to the total milk production of Gujarat State. The hump in male is firm and moderate size. So there is a yearning need to save and improve our own milk breeds for proper nutrition and employment, thus making our villagers/farmers economically sound. Lactation length ranges from 210 to 310 days averaging of about 285 days. Hump is medium in size, not fleshy, generally erect. In cows, udder is moderately developed with small and squarely placed teats. Amrit mahal. The breed could have been named by Raja Somdeorai in memory of his father as Red Kanhari, now misnomered as Red Kandhari. A pair of bullocks cost approximately Rs. 6) Traditionally, India has been home to some of the most varied stock of cows in the world: the red-skinned Sahiwal that milks through droughts, the mighty Amrit Mahal with swords for horns or the tiny Vechur that stand no taller than a dog. Malvi bullocks are well known for quick transportation, endurance and ability to carry heavy loads on rough roads. Ears are small, horizontal and taper to a point. Horns are short and stumpy. Head is short and broad. The gait is called one-fourth pace (sawai chal) by the breeder. Indigenous cattle are essential components of organic/natural farming systems through the production of manure. Currently, A2 Corporation has only one market where they are profitable. Further advantages are that the indigenous breeds’ milk is more nutritious with higher levels of micronutrients; indigenous breeds are especially known for qualities of heat tolerance, resistance to diseases and ability to thrive under extreme nutritional stress. Global warming is likely to increase incidences of animal diseases, particularly viral and protozoan diseases in crossbred cattle. Purebred animals are available in the interior area of the breeding tract. Hooves are strong and can stand rough wear on stony ground. They, therefore, fall under the domain of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity to which India is a signatory. Some animals have also been maintained by Pasi and Yadav communities. According to some reports, the purebred Haryana cattle were abundant in Jhajjar, Beri and Jahajgarh pockets of Rohtak district. Kangayam is a draught breed of cattle and distributed in Kangayam, Dharapuram, Perundurai, Erode, Bhavani and part of Gobichettipalayam taluks of Erode district, Dindigul, Karur and Coimbatore district. B Rajasthan. In Kandhar tehsil the Red Kandhari breed of cattle is more common. They are capable of heavy draught work in deep sands. Amrit mahal; Angol; 62. Horns are long and pointed. The name Red Kandhari appears to be the corrupt name from Raja Kanhar. Calving interval is 577.6±24.32 days and lactation length 299± 10 days. Sontakke et al. It's home tract is Punganur town of Chittoor district. They are usually white in colour. Ears are short, erect and laterally placed. The cows give about 2 to 3 liters of rich creamy and extremely healthy and nutritious milk. Indigenous cattle has smaller udder hence mastitis disease is uncommon. Nellore Cattle: The Nellore originates from Indian Zebu-type Ongole cattle which Brazil started to buy from India in the early 1900s. The native tract of the breed is Gir hills and forests of Kathiawar including Junagarh, Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Amreli districts of Gujarat. Muzzle in many animals is either copper or amber-coloured. Tn adult females, the predominant coat colour is gray with white markings on face and legs. The forehead is dished. The face is long and tapers towards the muzzle, which is usually gray to black. Foreign cows remain dirty and flies are hovering on them. Females are being used for all kinds of farm operations. On the other hand, replacement of Kangayam cattle by exotic crosses is high in Udumalpet, Pollachi, Palladam and Tirupur taluks of Coimbatore, and Erode district. Cows producing A2 milk are known as A2 cows, while those producing A1 milk are called A1 cows. Bullocks are used for heavy work. The sustainability of the remaining diversity of indigenous cattle breeds – the Hallikar, Amrit Mahal, Khillar, Bargur and Malnad Gidda – lies herein, and buffaloes. The price of each bullock ranges from Rs. Hump is small in females and medium sized in males. Occasionally, horns are also like those of Khillaris in size and shape, copper coloured and pointed. It was claimed that Gir and possibly Kankrej cattle from Gujarat state, Ongole cattle from Andhra Pradesh state and local cattle having Mysore-type blood were used to evolve the Krishna Valley breed. Each of the cattle is numbered for easy identification. Ears are pendulous but not so long. Indigenous cattle breed make an enormous contribution to food production and food sovereignty. The improved indigenous cows rearing and processing of cow products are the major activities for sustainable income and employment generation.