He studied at Würzburg and at the University of Berlin, where his professor, the physiologist and anatomist Johannes Müller, took him on a summer expedition to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea. The strong recapitulation hypothesis views ontogeny as repeating forms of adult ancestors, while weak recapitulation means that what is repeated (and built upon) is the ancestral embryonic development process. [22] He was the first person to use the term "first world war". [15], From 1866 to 1867 Haeckel made an extended journey to the Canary Islands with Hermann Fol. Haeckel accepted the invitation. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (German: [ˈʔɛɐ̯nst ˈhɛkl̩]; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919[1]) was a German zoologist, naturalist, eugenicist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including ecology,[2] phylum,[3] phylogeny,[4] and Protista. In those days of great interest in protoplasm, it was believed for a while that certain deep-sea dredgings had brought up such structureless organisms; when scientists found this to be in error, Haeckel continued to insist, throughout the years, that “monera” existed. For a fuller list of works of and about Haeckel, see his entry in the German Wikisource. [83] Other Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel. A staunch evolutionary biologist, Haeckel put Darwin on the world map. In 1865 he was appointed full professor, and he remained at Jena until his retirement in 1909. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a prominent comparative anatomist and active lecturer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One of Haeckel's books did a great deal to explain his version of "Darwinism" to the world. At least this is the view of Schleicher, one of the foremost authorities on this subject. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell, and visited Thomas Huxley and family at their home. 46 Issue 2, p123 . Haeckel, E. 1879. Though he made no suggestion that embryo illustrations should be directly based on specimens, to him the subject demanded the utmost "scrupulosity and conscientiousness" and an artist must "not arbitrarily model or generalise his originals for speculative purposes" which he considered proved by comparison with works by other authors. "Haeckel's Monism and the Birth of Fascist Ideology". In 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League (Deutscher Monistenbund) to promote his religious and political beliefs. At Messina he studied the one-celled protozoan group Radiolaria, members of which are strikingly crystalline in form; not surprisingly, Haeckel later maintained that the simplest organic life had originated spontaneously from inorganic matter by a sort of crystallization. Relating different images on a grid conveyed a powerful evolutionary message. [81], Nazis themselves divided on the question of whether Haeckel should be counted as a pioneer of their ideology. In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher, in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen (German: proto-humans), which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle". These remains are among the oldest hominid remains ever found. He was giving successful "popular lectures" on his ideas to students and townspeople in Jena, in an approach pioneered by his teacher Rudolf Virchow. Robert J. Richards, "Myth 19: That Darwin and Haeckel Were Complicit in Nazi Biology", in. Nazi propaganda guidelines issued in 1935 listed books which popularized Darwin and evolution on an "expunged list". ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. He was first to postulate a “missing link” between ape and man and was proven correct when Java man was found in 1891. [54] Robert J. Richards, in a paper published in 2008, defends the case for Haeckel, shedding doubt against the fraud accusations based on the material used for comparison with what Haeckel could access at the time. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ernst-Haeckel, Strange Science - Biography of Ernst Haeckel, University of California, Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology - Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), How Stuff Works - Science - Biography of Ernst Heinrich Haeckel. [35] In his view, 'Negroes' were savages and Whites were the most civilised: for instance, he claimed that '[t]he Negro' had stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race, which, he argued, was evidence of their being less evolved, and which led him to compare them to '"four-handed" Apes'. Very early in embryonic development, diffusion beco… 1, System der Craspedoten: IN Monographie der Medusen. 215 ff. [14] Building collections around his own, Haeckel founded both the Phyletic Museum in Jena and the Ernst Haeckel Haus; the latter contains his books and archives, and it preserves many other mementos of his life and work. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and artist. Richardson & Keuck 2001. The evolutionary study of embryos reached a peak in the late 1800s thanks primarily to the efforts of one extraordinarily gifted, though not entirely honest, scientist named Ernst Haeckel (left). Haeckel dedicated some species of jellyfish of particular beauty (such as Desmonema annasethe) to his unforgettable wife. Ernst Haeckel studied animals and evolution in Germany from 1834 to 1919. ERNST HAECKEL AND THE THEORY OF THE CELL STATE: REMARKS ON THE HISTORY OF A BIO-POLITICAL METAPHOR. On one hand, Haeckel was an advocate of scientific racism. Interestingly, though it was only on a theoretical basis, he suggested as early as 1866 that the cell nucleus was concerned with inheritance. [18][19], Haeckel's wife, Agnes, died in 1915, and he became substantially frailer, breaking his leg and arm. [16] In 1867 he married Agnes Huschke. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. [36], In his Ontogeny and Phylogeny Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote: "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others ... all contributed to the rise of Nazism. Dubois classified Java Man with Haeckel's Pithecanthropus label, though they were later reclassified as Homo erectus. In the introduction to his 1871 The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin gave particular praise to Haeckel, writing that if Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte "had appeared before my essay had been written, I should probably never have completed it". (Ironically, a new human species, Homo floresiensis, a dwarf human type, has recently been discovered in the island of Flores). [41][42], Haeckel later claimed that the missing link was to be found on the lost continent of Lemuria located in the Indian Ocean. (Haeckel, 1866), vol. Ernst Haeckel’s Alleged Anti-Semitism and Contributions to Nazi Biology Robert J. Richards1 The University of Chicago Figure 1: Haeckel’s stem-tree of the nine human species, with their varieties; the ape-man at the source. Ernst Haeckel – Evolution's controversial artist. From Ernst Haeckel's. Watts E, Levit GS, Hossfeld U (2019). More importantly, though, [71] As an advocate of eugenics, he also believed that about 200,000 mentally and congenitally ill should be killed by a medical control board. An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species. [70] He was also a social Darwinist who believed that "survival of the fittest" was a natural law, and that struggle led to improvement of the race. "[37], In his introduction to the Nazi party ideologue Alfred Rosenberg's 1930 book, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Peter Peel affirms that Rosenberg had indeed read Haeckel. He was so precise (See biogenetic law.). [24], Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. See for example, their Fig. Watts E (1), Levit GS (2), Hossfeld U (3). In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. Such experiences in marine biology strongly attracted Haeckel toward zoology, but dutifully he took a medical degree, as his family wished, at Berlin in 1857. Research Affiliate in the History of Medicine, Yale University. Despite the significance to ideas of transformism, this was not really polite enough for the new popular science writing, and was a matter for medical institutions and for experts who could make their own comparisons. [citation needed], Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the modern diversity of human groups. He was known for his contributions in the scientific realm, including discovering and naming thousands of species, coining different biological terms, and mapping a genealogical tree. [13], In 1864, his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died. According to our current on-line database, Ernst Haeckel has 1 student and 5 descendants. In the racial hierarchies he constructed Jews tended to appear closer to the top, rather than closer to the bottom as in Nazi racial thought. [5] Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany[6] and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny. [27] Haeckel supported the theory with embryo drawings that have since been shown to be oversimplified and in part inaccurate, and the theory is now considered an oversimplification of quite complicated relationships, however comparison of embryos[6] remains a powerful way to demonstrate that all animals are related. And illustrator, and artist ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was also an extreme German nationalist who strongly! [ 64 ] [ 64 ] [ 53 ] there were multiple versions of the T4... Hypothesis of Africa and gain access to exclusive content worth mentioning that Haeckel had often overtly recognized great. Human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the first person to use the term first. Theory of the Aktion T4 program available evidence strong form Haeckel dedicated some species of jellyfish of beauty. And the Birth of Fascist ideology '' on Nazism related to the world ( such as Desmonema annasethe to! 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